La novela picaresca

La burla y el desengaño son las bases de la novela picaresca, género que en el Siglo de Oro de la literatura española, alcanzó su mejor temporada. Un antihéroe relata las viscitudes de su vida, y a diferencia de los demás protagonistas de historias dentro de los movimientos barrocos, románticos, etc, éste poco tiene de que enorgullecerse, pero resulta atractivo porque se convierte en la voz de la clase desposeída de aquellos pobres que carentes de hidalguía y desnudando la realidad, con un humor que trasciende de la historia, para desnudar los pesares de su clase  y su época.

La picaresca está presente en la producción literaria de la época medieval, pero empieza a tomar su verdadero lugar y adquiere fama con la aparición en 1554 de un emblema de la novela picaresca “El Lazarillo de Tormes“  y le seguirían muchas otras tantas, entre ellas la de un grande de las letras españolas Miguel de Cervantes que ya incursiona en el género con su célebre “Rinconete y Cortadillo” de ahí encontramos en 1594 a los literatos europeos que ya han descubierto la picaresca española y se dan con mucho talento a imitarla, en obras tan conocidas como “Aventuras y Desventuras de Moll Flanders” de Daniel Defoe en 1722, de verdad que antes de redimirse la señorita Flanders, bien compite con el pícaro de Tormes en sus tretas.

Los ingredientes de la receta picaresca, un protagonista de oscuro orígen y si se puede sin padres conocidos o de mala reputación, un pobrete que se aprovecha, en una forma que parece ser de relato de denuncia, de la hipócrecia y el egoismo de las clases acomodadas. Un pillete (ella o él) que se da a la tarea de contar sus vivencias, pretendiendo echar clase moral, en una autobiografía en que hay de todo para considerarlo un aprovechado, en una historia que parece nunca acabaría sino fuera porque así lo ha decidido el antihéroe que la relata, llena de relatos y circunstancias sin evolución.

Ya les he dicho una pretendida denuncia sobre las condiciones de un pícaro, que luego de muchas viscitudes ya es castigado o bien se arrepiente de sus acciones. Ante todo la novela picaresca es una novela que cae dentro del realismo, narrando los hechos de la vida sin adornadas descripciones como otros géneros, en el género picaresco la vida se ve tal cual es, y los personajes que el pícaro cita se ven desnudos a los ojos del lector tal cual son con sus defectos y bajezas.

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Escrito por | 29 de diciembre de 2009 con 28 comentarios.
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